We offer the widest product range of low-flow mass flow meters on the market. Numerous styles of both standard and bespoke instruments can be offered for applications in laboratory, machinery, industry and hazardous areas.
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Bronkhorst instruments are used for numerous applications in many different markets. In this section you will find an overview of the main markets for our equipment, illustrated with some typical examples of applications.
Are you looking for technical documentation, are you interested to learn more about the measuring principles of Bronkhorst products, or you do want to get in contact with a Bronkhorst Service Engineer? This section will guide you to the relevant service & support topics.
Bronkhorst High-Tech BV the leaders in Mass Flow Meter / Mass Flow Controller technology for gases and liquids, Pressure Controllers and Evaporation Systems.
As Managing Director of M+W Instruments GmbH, I often explain and give training about the inline measurement principle used for our MASS-STREAM flow meter series. M+W Instruments is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bronkhorst.
At our production site in Leonhardsbuch, Germany, we manufacture instruments of Bronkhorst's MASS-STREAM™ product line.
This product series of mass flow meters measures flow inline following the CTA principle (CTA = Constant Temperature Anemometry). In this blog I try to share a little bit of my knowledge about this measurement principle.
The working principle of these CTA flow meters and controllers is based on King’s Law. King’s Law can be attributed to L.V. King, who in 1914 published his famous King’s Law, mathematically describing heat transfer in flows. He used a heated wire immersed in a fluid to measure the mass velocity at a point in the flow.
This can be described by the following formula:
P = P0 + C · Φmn
P: Heater power
P0: Heater power offset at zero flow
C: Constant (device-dependent)
Φm: Mass flow
n: dimensionless figure (type 0.5)
According to King’s Law, the greater the velocity of the gas across the probes, the greater the cooling effect. The electronics are realized with a Wheatstone bridge, which is an electrical circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component. Its operation is similar to the original potentiometer.
The two probes of the CTA sensor act as the legs of the Wheatstone bridge and as the heater probe is cooled by the fluid, the resistance of the probe is decreased and more energy is required to maintain the temperature difference.
The CTA sensor is aiming to keep this temperature difference (delta-T) between the two probes at a constant level. The flow rate and the heater energy required to maintain this constant delta-T are proportional and thus indicate the mass flow of the gas. The actual mass flow rate is calculated by measuring the variable power required to maintain this constant temperature difference as the gas flows across the sensor.
As I’ve mentioned before, the CTA sensor is measuring the flow rate inline. This means that no by-pass is required which makes these mass flow meters less sensitive to humidity and contamination. Besides, the pressure loss is negligible. This makes the instruments the ideal solutions for the following applications:
Reducing the level of Nitrogen Oxides with Selective Catalytic Reduction can be a challenging task. How can flow meters with CTA technology help control Anhydrous Ammonia, a typical reductant for this SCR technique?
In the blog, we explain the inline principle for gases, also known as CTA measurement and we share the reasons why to use flow meters or controllers using this principle.
Thermal mass flow instruments that make use of a bypass are what most people have in mind when they think of thermal mass flow instruments. What are the differences?