We offer the widest product range of low-flow (mass) flow meters and controllers on the market. Numerous styles of both standard and bespoke instruments can be offered for applications in laboratory, machinery, industry and hazardous areas.
Customer satisfaction, innovation and quality of product and service have been the cornerstones of Bronkhorst's success. Based on our experience, innovation and sense of responsibility, a relationship with Bronkhorst assures Performance for Life.
Bronkhorst instruments are used for numerous applications in many different markets. In this section you will find an overview of the main markets for our equipment, illustrated with some typical examples of applications.
Are you looking for technical documentation, are you interested to learn more about the measuring principles of Bronkhorst products, or you do want to get in contact with a Bronkhorst Service Engineer? This section will guide you to the relevant service & support topics.
Bronkhorst UK is leader in Mass Flow Meter / Mass Flow Controller technology for gases and liquids, Pressure Controllers and Evaporation Systems.
Besides plasma as a natural phenomenon, this fascinating physical effect also takes place in manufacturing processes of products that we use in our daily lives. Such as: mobile phones, computers, solar panels and glass windows.
In plasma processes, plasma reactors are used. In plasma reactors gas flow, vapour flow and pressure play an important role. The flow- and pressure control of these gases into the reactor are regulated by flow controllers and pressure controllers. Flow controllers control the gas flow to the reactor chamber, where the gases are ignited into a plasma, and the pressure controller diverts the excess gas out of the reactor chamber, while maintaining the pressure.
As product manager of MEMS-based instruments at Bronkhorst, I recognize the importance of these products within plasma applications. The fact that I often get questions about plasma applications, inspired me to write this blog.
According to the Cambridge dictionary ‘plasma’ in physics is: "a highly ionised gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons". Because ionization and recombination of ions and electrons takes place continuously, the plasma emits a beautiful light. Plasma is therefore also called the fourth state of matter, next to solid, liquid and gas.
Examples of naturally occurring plasmas are: lightning, the northern lights and the nuclear activity in the sun and other stars. Man has learned from the natural occurrence of plasma and has turned it into technology that is used today for many technological processes.
Man-made examples are: plasma lamps, nuclear fusion reactors and ordinary fluorescent lamps. Last but not least, plasma reactors should be mentioned.
Plasma enables applying coatings onto surfaces of silicon chips, glass and metal pieces. For instance, a thin coating on a chip can be structured by an etching process involving plasma. It can also clean and activate a surface to enhance a bonding process between two pieces of material before gluing them together.
The gases introduced into a reactor form an ionized plasma by applying electrical power. A well-balanced adjustment of different gas flows, reactor pressure, temperature and electrical power turn the gases into a nice colourful light that spreads its magic on the materials inside the reactor, an ionized plasma. These balanced settings of gas flows and reactor pressure are obtained by mass flow controllers and electronic pressure controllers.
CVD, PVD, ALD, RIE, IBE, SAB are abbreviations for manufacturing processes in the semiconductor, solar and other industries that involve surface treatment. These processes are often performed in plasma reactors, using a plasma of gas mixtures or vapour.
These vapour and layer desposition processes are designed to apply a really thin coating with thicknesses in order of nanometres to micrometres. Most glass windows have a thin anti-reflection coating applied by physical vapour deposition - PVD.
Your computer monitor, you are now probably looking at, contains millions of pixels made by chemical vapour deposition - CVD.
You can read more about these surface treatment techniques on our website.
In cooperation with system builders, Bronkhorst serves end-users by supplying complete flow & pressure control systems. A possible construction of a flow & pressure control system for plasma processes is shown in the flow diagram.
Flow controllers add gases to the reactor chamber, where the gases are ignited into a plasma and used in the desired reaction with the inserted material. The pressure regulator plays an important role. It diverts the excess gases out of the reactor chamber, while maintaining an optimal process pressure.
In this setup of an evaporating system - Controlled Evaporator Module (CEM) - in combination with liquid flow controller and gas flow controller, supplies a vapour to a plasma reactor. Together with the gas flow controller below the CEM, which can add an extra gas, they create the perfect process conditions for the reactor chamber where the gases are ignited form a plasma.
The lower gas flow controller is used for the purge gas, usually nitrogen, which is used to flush out any unwanted gases from the reactor chamber after the process. An electronic pressure regulator directs the excess gas mixture away from the reactor chamber while maintaining the pressure in the process.
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