We offer the widest product range of low-flow (mass) flow meters and controllers on the market. Numerous styles of both standard and bespoke instruments can be offered for applications in laboratory, machinery, industry and hazardous areas.
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Learn more about how Coriolis-based flow meters can be used as microfluidic flow meter instead of thermal flow meters. Read the customer story of a microfluidics system builder who used Bronkhorst products.
Are you looking for technical documentation, are you interested to learn more about the measuring principles of Bronkhorst products, or you do want to get in contact with a Bronkhorst Service Engineer? This section will guide you to the relevant service & support topics.
Bronkhorst High-Tech BV the leaders in Mass Flow Meter / Mass Flow Controller technology for gases and liquids, Pressure Controllers and Evaporation Systems.
When it comes to measuring flow, two crucial factors can greatly affect your flow measurement: laminar flow and turbulent flow. These phenomena play a significant role in the behaviour of flow meters and can impact the accuracy of flow measurements. Let's dive into the differences between laminar flow and turbulent flow, explore some tips to minimize the adverse effects of turbulence and learn why laminar flow is important for flow meters.
Laminar flow is an appearance where fluid particles move in smooth, parallel layers. This orderly movement allows for excellent fluid mixing and reduces energy loss, making it highly desirable in various flow applications. In laminar flow, the fluid's velocity remains relatively constant. This characteristic creates well-defined flow profiles, ensuring consistent and accurate flow measurements. Laminar flow is commonly observed at low flow rates and in situations where flow is unobstructed. Meaning there are not too many obstructions in the flow path like: valves, adapters or couplings.
When do flow conditions lead to laminar flow or turbulent flow? This is determined by the Reynolds number (Re). The Reynolds number combines four variables:
• Diameter of the tube
• Speed of the fluid
• Density of the fluid
• Dynamic viscosity of the fluid
A low Reynolds number (≤ ca. 2300) indicates laminar flow, while a high Reynolds number (≥ ca. 3000) signifies turbulent flow. For values between 2300 and 3000, the flow can be transitional, exhibiting characteristics of both laminar and turbulent flow.
Avoid unnecessary restrictions like valves, adapters, and elbow couplings in your flow process. These can induce turbulence. If they are necessary, consider using a turbulence filter between such components and the flow meter.
Maintain the appropriate pipe length to limit flow speed. Aim for a minimal pipe length of at least 10 times the pipe diameter at the inlet of the instrument and 4 times the pipe diameter at the outlet (for flow meters). Using the correct pipe length helps in transitioning from turbulent to laminar flow.
Turbulence filters help smooth out the flow and transform turbulent flow back into laminar flow before reaching the sensor. Some flow meters come equipped with integrated turbulence filters, providing an effective solution to counteract turbulence effects.
It depends very much on the application what the consequences are of turbulent flow. In semicon processes for example, particularly in coating processes such as layer deposition, turbulent flow is a no-go! A stable process is essential here. However, in other coating processes, like flame spray techniques, the impact of turbulences will be less due to the high pressure in the flow. If you need advice on choosing the best flow meter for your application, please let us know or download our e-book.
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Bronkhorst High-Tech designs and manufactures innovative instruments and subsystems for low-flow measurement and control for use in laboratories, machinery and industry. Driven by a strong sense of sustainability and with many years of experience, we offer an extensive range of (mass) flow meters and controllers for gases and liquids, based on thermal, Coriolis and ultrasonic measuring principles. Our global sales and service network provides local support in more than 40 countries. Discover Bronkhorst®!